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Blog Post 2: EDCI 532

Hayashi Studio film is a powerful film that looks at the past of Japanese Canadians in Cumberland. As someone who grew up on Vancouver Island and had no knowledge of this studio, I found this very interesting, and it reinforced the idea that they stated in the film of “we are a community and nothing is there now” because “it is not the dominant narrative”. When reading through the Thom’s article and reflecting on the Hayashi Studio video, the importance of photos and documenting while also sharing and hearing from knowledge keepers and elders. Within my practice as a teacher, this has also been true in terms of reporting and teaching diversity (such as First Peoples Knowledge).

Something that stood out in Thom’s reading is the reference to a compass that is spinning continuously in terms of the question “Where am I?”. When first reflecting on this question you can have a specific answer but really there is lots to uncover as Aoki referred to in our previous reading.  I really value the image of a circle and compass as it connects my previous knowledges together, whether that is the Bronfenbrenner theory, the medicine wheel, dance, Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) Model and even certain aspects of BC curriculum. I value these models as it demonstrates that elements are working together and that it is a continuous process. This emphasizes that there is the ability to return “home” as pointed out by Thom who shared Aoki’s articles. Thus, in terms of this course I believe a circular model is important as we are able to return to various learnings and experiences and connect to present learnings in order to create future ideas and build on others. As such we are able to come “from a completely different perspective” (Thom, 2024, p.6).

All in all, in a world where we lack present engagement. It is my belief that we have a huge advantage in terms of being able to understand our past through pictures as there is easily accessible ways to photograph and share information online. This online global expansion, in my opinion, helps us become more aware of worldwide problems as knowledge is at our fingertips if we carefully research it and are curious about the diverse perspectives. Getting to read, different perspectives and hear of various experiences through various blogs, documents, research is thus empowering to our future and how we can be on a quest and understand our personal growth and journeys.

Thom, J. S. (2024). Understanding Curriculum Amidst Doing Curriculum Research. In P. P. Trifonas & S. Jagger (Eds.), Handbook of Curriculum Theory and Research (pp. 1–25). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82976-6_46-2

Blog Post 1: EDCI 532

“Music is one of the first places where racism breaks down. Music is so easy to get at: You can just sit there, relax and listen. The colour of the person doesn’t matter.” (Morrow, 2013, para 14)

I wanted to start my post with a quote that Mr. Aoki shared to CBC Globe and Mail. As someone who values the Arts, I believe that this statement is true and in my experience music and specifically dance have been great coping mechanisms that have shaped my practice. Much like Mr. Aoki I use music daily in my life. As teachers it is important to understand and dive deep into our pasts to help us understand our roots and better the future. Thus as Aoki shares it is important to uncover and understand ourselves first.

A quote that stood out to me was “I should learn to see life within the fullness of a double or even a multiple vision” (Pinar & Irwin, 2004, p.347). This in teaching is so crucial as many of our learners have diverse backgrounds and we must teach to all their needs and experiences. I believe that my experience of having a disability has shaped some of my experiences and when reading about Aoki’s story, there were similarities. I think reading and learning about past histories allows us as people and educators to understand and be more empathetic. As such doing the best you can to promote change and better the future is important and even more meaningful when you understand and can make connections to your past experiences.

In regards to the key questions where am I currently and where could I be in the future. I feel as though I am a passionate and dedicated lifelong learner who is committed to collaborate and grow. This year, I participated in not only professional practice but also more personal self-care, which has only made me stronger as an educator and person. It was a challenging year for me teaching in my classroom with numerous events. These experiences have only made me grow. In the future, I strive to be a mentor as I have had so many individuals that have contributed positively to my journey.

References

Pinar, W. F., & Irwin, R. L. (2004). Reflections of a Japanese Canadian Teacher Experiencing Ethnicity 1 (1979). In Curriculum in a New Key (1st ed., pp. 333–348). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410611390-26

Morrow, F. (2013, Feb 19). Harry Aoki, 91, overcame wartime internment to flourish as a musician. The Globe and Mail.  https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/harry-aoki-91-overcame-wartime-internment-to-flourish-as-a-musician/article8876769/?service=mobile

Annotated Bibliography for Future Research Topic (EDCI 515)

Learning Plan

  • Create an annotated bibliography of about 10 or more articles
  • Summarize articles with key points for each.
  • Write down any useful quotes and organize articles based on categories.
  • Keep a digital log of research processes (databases, terms searched etc…)
  • Discuss findings of overall research topic area with the class.

Topic: Does digital badging help promote language learning?

Terms searched: Digital Badging and French language learning, Digital Badging and language learning, Digital Badging and ESL

Databases used : UVic Library

Sub categories (reflected as tags in right hand side of table for each article. See Useful Quotes and Connection to Practice/Research

Annotated Bibliography

Ady, K. Kinsella, K., & Paynter, A. (2015). Digital distinction: Badges add a new dimension to adult learning. Journal of Staff Development, 36(4), 24-27.

            This article defines digital badges and discusses their purpose for adult learners. This journal article focuses on the implementation of a system that focuses on mastery and using digital badges. At Cherry Creek School District in Colorado, educators developed and implemented professional learning through digital badges. This study evaluated this new approach to professional learning and followed a qualitative data analysis that shared anecdotal comments of the use of digital badges. Therefore, this emphasized a personalized approach to learning and allows for professional learning to be recognized through informal credentials such as digital badges. 

Alt, D. (2023). Who benefits from digital badges? Motivational precursors of digital badge usages in higher education. Current Psychology42(8), 6629–6640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02002-0

            This study investigated the digital badge platform Credly. It further looks at learning theories (achievement goal and deep and surface approaches to learning) related to motivation. This research took place with Education students at a college in Israel. This study recognizes that badging does not work in all learning settings and that it is more effective to use badges alongside other assessment strategies. Additionally, it puts forward the idea of learning orientation and competitive orientation, and how these factor into badging systems. Some of the findings noticed some connections of factors including competitive orientation often associated to performance goals. This study’s results concluded that mastery and self-regulation were attained with the help of digital badges; however, this may not be the only reason for this drive. Ultimately, this study focuses on theories and learning outcomes.

Başal, A., & Kaynak, N. E. (2020). Perceptions of pre-service English teachers towards the use of digital badges. Innovations in Education and Teaching International57(2), 148–162. 

            This mixed-methods study uses quantitative data to elaborate on the benefits of digital badges and qualitative data (collected through a questionnaire) to elaborate on the common themes and perspectives of teacher candidates. This study focuses on pre-service teachers located at a state university in Turkey. Additionally, the research provides examples of digital badges with descriptions of their uses and how it affects motivation of students. It also outlines some key limitations and benefits of digital badging in correlation to English Language Teachers. Ultimately, this study focuses on using badges as a form of assessment rather than based on outcome or skill development.

Cucchiara, S., Giglio, A., Persico, D., & Raffaghelli, J. E. (2014). Supporting Self-regulated Learning Through Digital Badges: A Case Study. In Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (Eds.), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (pp. 133–142). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_15

This paper uses a case study to address the effectiveness of digital badging on self-regulated learning in an online course. The case study evaluates competencies and connects learning experiences to lifelong learning. Ultimately concluding that badges allow students in post-secondaries to evaluate their goals, and connect their personal learning experiences and learning process. All in all, this paper shares some key ideas related to the role of digital badges with self-regulated learning and adult learners

Cruaud, C. (2018). The playful frame: Gamification in a French-as-a-foreign-language class. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching12(4), 330–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2016.1213268

            This article follows a user centered approach to evaluate the effectiveness of gamification in foreign language classes. This study took place over an entire school year where they tested an application that was designed for the purpose of this study, with playfulness and gamification in mind. This research took place in a Norwegian upper secondary class and followed up with interviews based on the students experiences with the application. Thus emphasizing the relationship of engagement, further learning and autonomy related to gamification. In order to analyze the effects of gamification this article also discusses the four dimensions of play, Henriot and Silva theories which is an analytical framework. The design of this application was quest based and rewarded users with badges. Various badges exist in this system including secondary badges that support progression and feedback as well as more competitive nature badges which evidence in the study shared that this supported the motivation of learning that was being analyzed.

 Homer, R., Hew, K. F., & Tan, C. Y. (2023). Comparing Digital Badges-and-Points with Classroom Token Systems.

            This study uses experimental groups to look at Class Dojo and digital badges points systems in classrooms and control groups (class points system that was not digitalized). The research evaluates multiple grade groups from Grade 1 to 4. The main focus of this article was on badges and point systems related to behaviour and language motivation in English Second Language classrooms. The analysis connected motivation to learning and practicing an additional language, and includes survey results of both experimental and control classes. Further comparisons of the two groups also investigated the teachers perspective of using this system. Ultimately, this study uses a common resource to test its effectiveness and concludes that learners felts more responsibility and autonomy in their learning. As a result, this study promotes badges and motivation by encouraging language learning as well as positive behaviours with extrinsic motivators of earning badges.

McCollum, R. M., & Reed, E. T. (2020). Developing a Badge System for a Community ESL Class Based on the Canadian Language Benchmarks. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 23(2), 228–236. https://doi.org/10.37213/cjal.2020.30438

            This article follows an exploratory study that analyzes the development of a badge system (an adaptation of Canadian Language Benchmarks into a CLB-badging system) in an English Second Language course. The author suggests that there is still further research to be conducted based on badges and language learning benefits. This article recognizes some of the challenges of language classrooms and the varying levels of proficiency. These problems and diversity of classrooms are known to be common amongst many language learning and regular classrooms. As such, it further investigates a learner centered approach that uses badges as a means to uplift motivation and assess curriculum purposefully.

 Perry, B. (2015). Gamifying French Language Learning: A Case Study Examining a Quest-based, Augmented Reality Mobile Learning-tool. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences174, 2308–2315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.892

A case study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a virtual reality immersive French environment in a minority context. This study was implemented in a French course at the University of Victoria. The goal of the research was to launch and assess the first French virtual experience game using the University of Victoria campus and the French language. As such GPS, game based elements and augmented reality were used to create this learning context in order to promote French language learning. This was a prototype tool that aimed to motivate, engage and promote the learning process in an authentic immersive experience in French. Throughout the study, qualitative and quantitative data were used. Survey questionnaires, prior and post experience, were conducted. Focus groups shared their involvements indicating their positive experiences with the tool and described it as “fun, motivating, useful, relevant”. This was the beginning stages of the authors research.

Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges in undergraduate composition courses: Effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers in Education2(4), 377–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-015-0042-1

This study was conducted at Coastal Carolina University in a first year English class. The goal of this study was to look at this English composition course and determine the effects of a digital badging system. The use of the badges in this study represents important course outcomes and were primarily used for assessments. Intrinsic motivation, benefits to learning and the feeling of digital badging were some of the key factors evaluated. Furthermore, this study discusses the implementation of digital badging methods as the group of professors created a system in order to promote progress and unity amongst programs. This design provides learners with specific feedback and the opportunity to resubmit. This paper also shares examples of digital badges and learning objectives, and includes various tables.  Finally, the survey results of this study were clear to express the students’ feelings towards digital badges and the appendix items showcase the opinion survey questions.

Yang, J. C., Quadir, B., & Chen, N.-S. (2016). Effects of the Badge Mechanism on Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance in a Game-Based English Learning Environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research54(3), 371–394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633115620433

            A quasi-experimental study was conducted to address the use of digital badges in relation to self-efficacy and English language learning performance. Ultimately, the study findings reflect positive benefits of game-based learning for English language learners. The study was implemented with Grade 3 students in Taiwan, in which it not only looks at Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL), but it also specifically outlines badges within the game, leaderboards, stars, etc. Practicing language is therefore interesting and enjoyable as the participants feel motivated to continue their progress with the DGBL design. Accordingly, this study stresses that these designs affect the learning performance, interest and self-efficacy positively. This paper finishes by discussing further research possibilities to investigate factors that contribute to what makes learners want to collect badges.

Useful Quotes and Connection to Practice/Research

Ady, K. Kinsella, K., & Paynter, A. (2015). Digital distinction: Badges add a new dimension to adult learning. Journal of Staff Development, 36(4), 24-27.

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Badges aren’t exactly new. Perhaps best known from organizations like the Scouts, badges can be physical representations of things accomplished or they can be digital icons associated with particular skills or tasks.” (Ady et al., 2015, p. 24)   “In other words, badges tap into intrinsic motivation as they can reflect autonomy, mastery, and purpose.” (Ady et al., 2015, p. 25).   “using digital badges adds a new dimension to adult learning.” (Ady et al., 2015, p. 25).   “use digital badges to mark milestones for people with personal goals.” (Ady et al., 2015, p. 24).Tags: motivation, autonomy, belonging, mastery, lifelong learning, professional learning   This article is useful to my research as it looks at the benefits of badging in terms of adult learning. This article although it doesn’t specifically talk about French language learning, it will be useful as it looks at learning as a lifelong journey which is a similar process to language learning. This article will be useful for my research and practice as it emphasizes the personalization and intrinsic motivation.

Alt, D. (2023). Who benefits from digital badges? Motivational precursors of digital badge usages in higher education. Current Psychology42(8), 6629–6640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02002-0

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Next, an assignment was developed that included four micro-assignments, each relating to a specific skill, such as information literacy and creativity.” (Alt, 2023, p. 6632)   “To create a badge-based intervention plan, course learning outcomes were mapped” (Alt, 2023, p. 6632)   “Evaluation with badges enabled us a lot to plan, organize, and arrange our studies more than assignments in other courses that did not involve badges.” (Alt et al., 2023, p. 6635).   “This study suggests that DBs in the context of higher education can be useful for deep learners to self-regulate their learning, however, they might be used for extrinsically driven purposes for others.” (Alt et al., 2023, p. 6639).   “DBs should be perceived as a form of formative feedback that illuminates steps in the pathways for achieving learning goals, by providing milestones that can help learners regulate their learning and create their own personalized timetables and pathways for learning. Providing clear mastery goals over peer competition and status should be highly considered by badge-based intervention designers.” (Alt et al., 2023, p. 6639).  Tags: digital badges, higher education. Personalized, self-regulation, mastery    This article looks at badges in terms of higher education. It is useful for my research as it further explores badging in terms of assessment and course learning. It thus stresses the idea that learners are extrinsically motivated and seeking mastery by implementing feedback.

Başal, A., & Kaynak, N. E. (2020). Perceptions of pre-service English teachers towards the use of digital badges. Innovations in Education and Teaching International57(2), 148–162. 

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Participants found that digital badges encouraged them to work harder and be more active in class.” (Başal and Kaynak, 2020, p.154).   “Collecting more badges as a record of their accomplishments and an alternative assessment method could be a reason for some students to continue working and succeeding.” (Başal and Kaynak, 2020, p. 155).   “Working for badges, therefore, might help students become more enthusiastic about putting their in best efforts, participating in class, and interacting with others.” (Başal and Kaynak, 2020, p. 155).   “ Besides providing external rewards, badges were also credited for increasing internal satisfaction and therefore greater interest in learning.” (Başal and Kaynak, 2020, p. 155).   “The participants considered badges as an alternative means of feedback that was more fast and positive than traditional forms of feedback.” (Başal and Kaynak, 2020, p. 155).Tags: assessment, digital badges, gamification, language, ESL, feedback   This article is useful to my research as it further explores language learning and digital badging, specifically related to English teachers. This study follows a similar model to the research I want to do as it uses pre-service language teachers in a mixed study to determine the benefits of badging in language learning contexts.

Cucchiara, S., Giglio, A., Persico, D., & Raffaghelli, J. E. (2014). Supporting Self-regulated Learning Through Digital Badges: A Case Study. In Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (Eds.), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (pp. 133–142). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_15

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Digital Badges move one step forward in the implementation of such a social vision of assessment in lifelong learning. They consist in sets of icons, implemented in technological learning environments, which can be issued by institutions promoting educational initiatives and displayed by users to show their learning achievements” (Cucchiara et al., 2014, p. 134)   “Studying the connections between open Digital Badges and self-regulation could increase our possibilities to implement strategies for assessment promoting skills for lifelong learning.” (Cucchiara et al., 2014, p. 135)   “Specifically, badges allow participants to monitor their own learning process, comparing and evaluating their goals and achievements with those of other participants.” (Cucchiara et al., 2014, p. 141).   “The badge ecosystem is aligned to course contents, participants activities, assessment tools, and also to the competence levels acquired by participants.” (Cucchiara et al., 2014, p. 141).   “The badges should be portable, linked to open pathways of learning, and hence transparent to both the organization that releases them, and to those willing to know about the learners’ achievements.” (Cucchiara et al., 2014, p. 135).Tags: lifelong learning, digital badges, self-regulated learning, learning design, assessment   Although this study focuses on Self-regulated learning and digital badges, it has a connection to language learning as in language learning there tends to be a large amount of levels and individual plans. Due to the fact that everyone’s language experiences are different, self-regulated learning is very important . It also stresses the importance of lifelong learning, skills and competencies which aligns with language learning.

Cruaud, C. (2018). The playful frame: Gamification in a French-as-a-foreign-language class. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching12(4), 330–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2016.1213268

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Gamification tools are designed to help teachers engage their students in everyday class activities by making the tasks more playful while giving the students more choice and control over their learning.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 330).   “They can earn badges by doing so: automatic badges for completing a certain number of tasks and teacher badges awarding good-quality work and participation. The students can also write messages to the whole class on a notification board in the application, thus creating a social space to practise the foreign language.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 334).   “For example, the categories in the application carry expressions of playfulness, such as quests and badges, which refer to role-playing games and video games.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 335).   “In addition, completing the easy first level of Quest 1 will immediately unlock two new quests and will reward the team with a badge.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 336).   “The students can earn badges as recognition of their progress in the tasks and as an acknowledgement of quality work. Once the team has received a specific badge, it is highlighted on the Badge page of the application, while the other badges remain grey” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 336).   “ […] earn a second badge and ‘be better’.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 338).   “At the end of this sequence, the students are willing to create more language quizzes to earn a second badge. They are voluntarily planning on doing more tasks, especially additional tasks that are not offered by the gamified system but that they create on their own. This is an example of learner autonomy: they are taking control over the tasks and over their learning.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 339).   “Another aspect of competition is found in the badges. All the students said in the interviews that they enjoyed earning badges.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 339).   “ I found that this playfulness and control led to engagement in the learning activity and to completing additional tasks. These findings were consistent with the interview data, where the students expressed that they felt motivated by the gamified activities.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 341).   “The findings of this study are encouraging, but there is a need for more research on the gamification of education, especially when it comes to foreign language learning.” (Cruaud, 2018, p. 341).Tags: gamification, play-based, autonomy, quest-based, French immersion   This article aligns with my research and practice as it uses gamification in French immersion classrooms. It looks at the benefits and need for more research to be done in terms of language learning and badging. This further drives my motivation to continue to do this sort of a study in terms of higher education and badges.

Homer, R., Hew, K. F., & Tan, C. Y. (2023). Comparing Digital Badges-and-Points with Classroom Token Systems.

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“The use of digital badges-and-points might help improve ESL student classroom engagement and learning of English.” (Homer, 2023, p. 137).   “The results suggest that students not only enjoyed using the digital badges and points in the classrooms, but also perceived the digital badges and point enhanced their motivation and participation towards learning and practicing speaking.” (Homer, 2023, p. 148).   “The curriculum probably was easy enough to follow without the need for additional motivational tools (e.g., digital badges), hence progression in both groups being similar and relatively good.” (Homer, 2023, p. 149).   “First, the use of different badges (see Figure 3) gives students a sense of progression.” (Homer, 2023, p. 150). “[badges] helps promote a feeling of well-being, and thus motivates learners to do try harder.” (Homer, 2023, p. 150).   “It is possible that the use of individual-based achievement gave each learner a more personal responsibility for managing their own learning and behavior.” (Homer, 2023, p. 150).   “We acknowledge that digital badges-and-points are not a universal solution to all motivational shortcomings; however this study suggests that they had a positive impact on students and teacher, considerably improving learning in some of the classes involved in the research, and positively stimulating many of the behaviors expected of student’s during lessons in all of the classes involved in the research.” (Homer, 2023, p. 150).Tags: ESL, language, motivation, lifelong learning, gamification, engagement,   This article focuses on English Second Language students and classroom badges in grades 1-4. Although for this research, I do not want to look at younger grades, I do believe that these findings are important for higher education students as well. In my opinion and experience, this is because if students are exposed to badges early they will be more willing to be engaged in language learning. It makes me think of students who are recognized for speaking French in class using tokens and points for instance.

McCollum, R. M., & Reed, E. T. (2020). Developing a Badge System for a Community ESL Class Based on the Canadian Language Benchmarks. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 23(2), 228–236. https://doi.org/10.37213/cjal.2020.30438

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Badges are evidence, physical or digital, of an accomplished outcome.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p.231)   “In a similar way, language learners can earn badges by identifying a set of desired competencies, practicing and acquiring those competencies, and then demonstrating proficiency to earn the badges.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p. 231)   “Boyer also points out that a badge system can motivate students because it gives them the choice to set individualized educational goals that are relevant to their personal aims.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p. 231). “In addition to motivating students and helping them develop self-regulation, a badge system can help with self-assessment.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p. 231).   “Although there are clearly benefits to encouraging such behaviours in language learners, stakeholders should never confuse a behaviour-based badge with a competency-based outcome. For badges to be meaningful as a measure of language proficiency, stakeholders need to clarify the outcome of a badge and ensure that the system includes proficiency-based badges.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p. 232).   “This feedback from both more proficient and lower-level learners suggests that the language in the badge system is currently worded at a level that is accessible by more proficient learners but not by lower-level students. If the vocabulary in the checklists is not accessible, it negates the main purposes of the badge system for lower-level students.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p.233).   “A CLB-based badge system can provide them with greater direction and empowerment through their language learning journey.” (McCollum and Reed, 2020, p.235).  Tags: ESL,  motivation, personalized, self-regulation, language, feedback, lifelong learning, assessment   This article looks at competencies and badges to address language learning in an ESL classroom. It connects increased personalization, self-regulation and motivation to badge earners. This study focuses on competency and accessibility to increase the engagement towards language learning experience. In my research, I hope to also focus on the language learning experience by encouraging participants to participate in initiatives to foster a French community where they feel self-motivated to learn the language, which is much like the findings of this article related to lifelong learning.

Perry, B. (2015). Gamifying French Language Learning: A Case Study Examining a Quest-based, Augmented Reality Mobile Learning-tool. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences174, 2308–2315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.892

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“To experience autonomy, individuals need to feel they are in control, and making meaningful choices. Explorez allows learners to decide which quests and challenges to pursue, thereby accommodating a greater spectrum of learners than traditional pedagogical methods.” (Perry, 2015, p. 2311)   “The extrinsic motivators of points and badges of accomplishment will appeal to certain players, while others will be drawn to intrinsic learning motivators.” (Perry, 2015, p. 2311)   “Game-based feedback tools like experience points, progress bars, badges, and achievements are motivating and meaningful to students.” (Perry, 2015, p. 2309)  Tags: French, extrinsic motivation, quest-based, gamification, motivation, digital badging   This article evaluates the use of a digital application that uses virtual reality to create a virtual representation of the users current environment. In this case UVIC. Students were motivated to complete quests as they received achievements through badges. This study  aligns with my research.

Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges in undergraduate composition courses: Effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers in Education2(4), 377–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-015-0042-1

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“In educational settings, badges often embrace a hybrid of the two assessment models in an attempt to recognize learning (both formally and informally) and motivate the learner through game-like encouragement.” (Reid et al, 2015, p. 379)   “All badges followed a consistent instructional design; introduce the skill (e.g., synthesizing), provide multiple examples of the skill in use, and prompt the learner with a writing assignment requiring demonstration of competency.” (Reid et al, 2015, p. 382)   “In most cases, learners were allowed two submissions per badge so that if the professor found the first submission to be inadequate, the submission would be marked ‘denied,’ and the learner could submit a revised attempt according to specific feedback.” (Reid et al, 2015, p. 382)  Tags: motivation, higher education, intrinsic motivation, learning design, competency, feedback, lifelong learning   This article promotes badges as lifelong learning examples and looks at intrinsic motivation of learners. Therefore, feedback and competency is taken into consideration to see the effects of feedback and badges. With my research, much like the first quote, I want to recognize informal learning experiences to motivate learners.

Yang, J. C., Quadir, B., & Chen, N.-S. (2016). Effects of the Badge Mechanism on Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance in a Game-Based English Learning Environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research54(3), 371–394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633115620433

QuotesLink to teaching practice/ research and tags
“Learning practice with star icons was found to significantly affect English learning performance in the current study, which means that the more practice a student did, the more their learning outcome was increased.” (Yang et al, 2016, p. 388).   “A leaderboard, which is another feature of the badge mechanism, is used for a set of challenges in order to encourage friendly competition between learners and to motivate them.” (Yang et al, 2016, p. 373).   “Learning practice questions is a part of the game that learners enjoy, and by collecting more star icons, they feel that they are making progress; this also affects their learning performance and interest.” (Yang et al, 2016, p. 388).   “This study also found that the students’ self-efficacy could enhance their English learning performance.”  (Yang et al, 2016, p. 389).  Tags: ESL, language, digital badging, gamification, motivation, self-efficacy, personalized   This article is relevant to my research as it provides examples and quotes from ESL learners related to digital badges and it comments on what they felt was engaging. This ranged from the gam mechanics of a leaderboard, to gaining stars and badges. This article closely looks at engagement, personalization, interest and self-efficacy in relation to language performance. This is likely similar to my research as I want to look at badges as increased engagement in French language learning. My study will have less focus on the gamification, however still many examples apply.

F2F and Online Learning

To answer this prompt, I am going to start with a story outlining a timeline of some of my learning environments.

Comparing my online and face-to-face learning experiences is interesting to consider. To put it into perspective, I have had many online learning experiences. I have experienced online experiences due to a pandemic where everything went online suddenly and I have also registered in various courses designed to be online.


First off I think it is important to differentiated synchronous and asynchronous learning as I think this plays into my experiences with online learning. I couldn’t decide which one to share so I included both.

Starting in Grade 11, I participated in Photography online which was asynchronous and personalized learning and provided many opportunities to use the skills taught and go out in nature to complete the assignments. Throughout this course I had little interaction with the instructor but still enjoyed being able to explore and follow a more personalized and self-paced learning design.

In Grade 12, I then took another asynchronous class but this time it was more academic (Biology 12 through SIDES). This course is designed online and I had more opportunities to connect with course instructor if I chose to (I think there was office hours and open sessions at SIDES for those who wished). However at the time, I was doing IB classes and just did the Bio class on my own time through Moodle I believe.

Both these experiences I enjoyed and appreciated the asynchronous aspect. I have always had motivation to learn so little to no contact with my instructors did not impact my learning. Although, I know for some they did not enjoy that there was no collaboration and limited real time-communication. It was very much an independent experience where you had to reach out for help if you needed it and you had to be motivated to complete the assignments.

Next University, I started my university experience with only in person classes and started to create a community as I transitioned to post-secondary. Then COVID hit in 2020 and I all my courses switched to online. This I would say was probably the hardest transition for everyone as classes were not designed for online. We would try to do pair shares which in zoom is not easy and has to follow more of a breakout session instead of a quick talk with your partner. The classes primary went to a very lectured format. Where we as a cohort would connect before or after as a group to just chat like in a room. Although this informal chatting was lost in Zoom, we made it work and professors transitioned to this experience we were all living.


Something that was a transition for me was at the time, I was co-president of our Education Student Association and we were planning our Career Fair which invites school districts to come showcase their teaching opportunities in a table fair format. However, during this time it was not possible and designing a whole new structure had to be made. Many considerations had to be made. First off a sign up for districts participating and also in an online format sign up for participants. If in person, we didn’t need a sign up as it was an open event people came and attended as they can. This was tricky as we had to pre-determine peoples districts of interest all while insuring no breakout room was left empty and had it more presentation style because there was no informal questions that promoted discussion and no free merch to entice students to view. I thought sharing this experience was helpful as it was challenging and I learned lots about planning an entire online event for over 200 people.

Finally, after all of this I decided I should enroll in the Information Communication Technology Professional Specialization Certificate, which I then took numerous online courses for as well as some Art Education courses. Art Education courses followed a similar experience to my Photography course in high school. These course had both synchronous and asynchronous aspects. Whereas the Certificate courses opened doors to various resources and ways to still promote communication (outside just discussion posts). Most used similar structures to our current Masters course. Using tools such as Jamboard, Padlet, Twitter, Hypothes.is, blog, breakout rooms to name a few. Most of these classes were asynchronous but it did not feel like it as you were constantly collaborating and that communication piece was prevalent and felt almost like face-to-face classes . This made me like online courses again and really value them when they are designed to be online. Ultimately, I have always valued the flexibility of online environments and the ability to return to lessons as you need to or go quickly through lessons you already understand. It really follows a personalized approach in my opinion but lacks the interactive aspects. 

All in all, I believe that all learning environments have benefits and it truly depends on the learner and instructor. My experience was shaped by many factors and if you would of asked me in the pandemic if I wanted to complete another online course I would have said no. That is no longer the case and because I am motivated and use various tools to promote that collaboration, I have enjoyed all my online courses within this Masters program. Again, this is because it was designed to be online and not thrown online. The design itself is important and last term, we saw that first hand as Michael created a learning community by incorporating thoughtful tools, assignments and resources to promote connections and learning from each other.

I created this poster of some of the differences that come to mind between Face to face and online learning. I found this article interesting regarding some of the challenges for online learning .

What is only possible when face-to-face and what is only possible when online? What are the shared elements from both a face-to- face and online learning experience that create meaningful learning? Discuss with examples

To address this question, I think it depends on the design of online learning. I do believe that with today’s tools and technologies there are lots of opportunities to foster collaboration and community, which I think previously could of lacked if not well thought out. This could also be true in a classroom though as well, if design is not thoughtful. Something that comes to mind is that with online learning, I believe (although I have never taught in an online environment), that you would have to be even more organized with the platforms you are using as well as the technology you are working with. There seems to be more preparation and thoughtfulness involved. Whereas in face to face settings, it is more easy to adapt and adjust according to behaviours and needs in real time. As an example, you see that the children in your class are very wiggly, you could call a movement break. Another example, would be to do an impromptu turn and talk as the class seems to need more time to discuss or are perhaps more chatty and want to share examples. These two examples are harder to do in online settings. It is not impossible, it is just more challenging. Those are just some main examples as well as some in my poster .

I think that this article does a good job at summarizing the importance of online learning and with its title (Why Not to Quit after First Attempts into Online or Hybrid Learning) really circles back to the idea and importance of learning

Learning Theories and Second Language Learning

In order to discuss some learning theories, I have broken it down into theories and provided some key examples. I also specifically connected it to French Immersion/language learning as this context sometimes creates a few different considerations. The final video by CLILandthings makes me as a French Immersion teacher reflect on these things even more.

Behaviorism:

Although behaviorism tends to be a “old” theory, I think that there is still place for it and many teachers still use it in order to set up expectations and routines. Lots of positive reinforcement is applied to show students what is expected. Comments like I see so and so ready to learn, who else is ready to learn? As well as in French Immersion specifically, many teachers use this approach to promote French speaking in their classroom, this can be done through French tickets or various programs (here are some to name a few) that follow the reward idea of this theory. Follows this approach. In terms of language learning this theory really focuses on imitation and repetition, which is important for vocabulary acquisition but it is not the only teaching practice. This theory tends to be combined with other theories in order for our students to be able to make mistakes and explore language.

This Ted Talk does a really nice job at emphasizing the importance of making mistakes in language learning.

Constructivism

In terms of constructivism, I value that this theory recognizes more of the learning process as it allows students to make their own connections and make meaning. Therefore various answers will be shared when asking students “what did you learn?”. This theory aligns with BC curriculum as it promotes the learner to go beyond their learning and take risks. This leads into the idea of making mistakes which is so important in language learning and within our classrooms. In order for children to feel like they can do this a classroom community needs to be established so that we are respectful to all ideas and mistakes. This is often done through behaviorism approach. 

Constructivism and Experiential learning

Constructivism and experiential learning really focuses on the learning experience and process. In my teaching and past learning experience. I really benefit from this approach as it helps learners make connections and see beyond the concepts. Notably, it opens our learning to our community by participating in field trips or personal projects guided through inquiry.

What theory best describes your belief around how learning takes place?

I am not sure I can select one learning theory as I believe they are all interrelated and various aspects can contribute to learning. I do have a strong belief about the connectivism learning theory, experiential and inquiry. These theories help create a learning environment where we can be curious, creative and learn from each other while we valuing our strengths and interests.

My most memorable experiences where those I got to share my interests (dance performances as I spoke about in earlier posts) and make personal connections and I think for my students it would be the same. They talk about the inquiry projects and field trips we do. It is never about what they failed it is about the experiences. Whether that was an experiential learning field trip or a project, anytime they got to share and be involved was key.

Ultimately this video does a nice job summarizing how we can take elements from each learning theory to benefit our practice and that there is no best practice as everyone learns differently.

Post 2: Best Structured Learning Experience

I also answered this question in EDCI 335 post during my undergrad and I would have to say that my response is very similar. Any experience I get to perform or do dance and art in any form. This aligns nicely with the pedagogy that High Tech High followed through their use of an exhibition which is resumed nicely in the following video.

Every time I had the opportunity to share my artistry or learning with an audience I felt motivated and inspired. This is still true and I still continue to dance.

Accordingly, I really value this statement from Bates, 2015, chapter 2.1 “All teaching is a mix of art and science. It is an art because any teacher or instructor is faced with numerous and constantly changing variables, which require rapid judgement and decision-making.” 

What made it memorable and worth writing about?

This experience of dance and performing was valuable because I always felt I was working towards a goal. Something that really came to light last dance performance for me was the importance of the process as well. This is talked about a lot in Education and teaching but less so in the arts. Often in dance, you work towards the final product and only showcase that but last year the studio I dance with showcased the learning along the way through a video montage. Thus valuing the journey and process of learning and much like in our classroom through surfaces like digital portfolios I believe this is also important. Yes an exhibition is important but documenting the steps to get there and talking about the successes and failures is even more meaningful. Dance in my experience has been about your learning.


My dance experience ranges from very structured to flexible classes and self-choregraphed dance sessions. I did very structured exam dance classes including RAD and ISTD syllabus work where you had to engage in an examination performance based on the syllabus which is a very similar model to Education and our curriculum and these experiences where also very memorable as I was working towards showing others and performing for them. In my opinion, this is very different from a test because there is no response from an audience. During dance exams or performances you get to see the examiner smiling and the audience engagement. It is really the performance aspect that makes this experience very memorable and the personalization that dance seems to have as no one does one move the exact same way even in a group dance.

Dance for me is a passion, but it is also a learning experience as no dance class is the same and throughout you learn various life skills. This ranges from confidence, independence, goal setting, creativity, teamwork, performance and time management to name a few. This Instagram post addresses many of the benefits I see in performing arts and education.

https://www.instagram.com/reel/C19jU2ON_CM/

All in all, performing arts is at the heart of my pedagogy as a teacher now likely because of the positive learning experiences I had. I also value arts as they foster a sense of belonging for children and there are many benefits for inclusion and those of diverse abilities. Dance is a form of expression and this is well explained in the following video.

Introduction EDCI 565

Introduction

Welcome back! I cannot believe it is term 2 of my Master’s degree in Educational Technology and I am back to teaching grade 1-2 French Immersion in Victoria as well. You can read more about me on my home page or this previous post as it really dives into, my beliefs and pedagogy surrounding dance and art. Furthermore, to expand on the benefits of dance pedagogy, through my recent years of teaching I have really been able to learn new tools and programs that have further developed my teaching skills and helped put the student at the center of their learning. One of the programs I have been learning relates to French Language Learning and is called AIM. This year my plan is to do my first AIM play as it follows an inclusive model, that promotes engagement and aligns with incorporating arts as a tool for learning.

The creative process of art. Students designed their own snowflakes.

I could elaborate on this model more, but let’s set that aside for a separate blog post and focus on the key questions of learning design.

Why you are interested in learning design?

I am interested in learning design as teaching is constantly changing and I believe that there is no proper way to teach but rather it is important to be flexible and continue your learning to adapt to your classrooms needs and strengths. Ultimately, this week we looked at a film called Most Likely to Succeed Film (2015). This film looked at a School called High Tech High -which as their moto connects the classroom to the world . I always have had a large appreciation for Inquiry and Innovation and this school really puts forward the idea of creativity and life skills related to learning. As a dancer and connecting this back to my belief of the Arts in Education, I value the idea of creativity and producing new things and performing/presenting at an exhibition. Thus, I believe that this model is teaching essential life skills, as stated within the film.  I can honestly say that my little brother and I had very different school experiences. In High School, my brother went to Pacific School of Innovation and Inquiry and followed a similar structure to what the film discussed, which has only made him transfer those skills and create super interesting projects to this day. Notably he created this https://twitter.com/psiivictoria/status/1470551620689661954?s=46&t=tzbVmeBGLPTPA8bgS4JNtQ . He learned how to code through Arduino, he designed it and various subject areas were evaluated. He also not only did this within school, now as a graduate from this school, has started his own business, where he is able to use the skills learned at PSII to help him have success in his career.

What experience do you have with learning design and how might you explain your process of designing learning experiences?

Finally the experience I have with learning design is acknowledging that it must be purposeful and intentional. Getting students involved in the process makes learning meaningful for them. I value our curriculum as it provides opportunities to design lessons where students gain these skills and in BC we are lucky that this aligns with our Core Competencies and as reporting is changing it seems that we are moving towards more inquiry models and goal setting experiences. In the Most Likely to Succeed Film (2015), it talked about building student confidence as an example of a skill. It also elaborated on the process of learning and the motivation. These are crucial in the learning design process. In a second language learning environment this is also very crucial as students are encouraged to take risks and learn from each other. If that is not set up or encouraged then how can students do this…

To explain my process of designing learning experiences here is a brief summary:

I believe that learning experiences is not only about a lesson, but also about the environment. I recognize however that I as a teacher have a vision and not everything is able to occur. For me this is not a linear process but rather one that I am constantly thinking about and changing but I do try to consider all of these elements to make for a great learning experience.

  • Setting up the space. I am grateful to have my own classroom and be able to move tables and switch it up for my learners. If I had a big budget and was able to design the class, I know I wouldn’t have desks. However, at this time, I only have access to desks and therefore have much like the video, set up my class in a square. I also do group pods as well to promote collaboration.  
  • Thinking of the classroom walls, there are many theories but in a French Language Learning environment and in all classrooms, effectively making the classroom with the children has been very beneficial for my learners. We create our sound and word walls (there is limited up on the walls when students arrive). It is purposeful.
  • September and even before you know your class, getting to know students within the school hallways. Then when in your class, diving in to your students interests, passions and strengths. I have really found it beneficial to run lunch clubs to get to know the kids even more.
  •  Furthermore, thinking of your students alongside the curriculum by making expectations with the students and having a goal for the learning.
  • I have really enjoyed using our digital portfolio and connecting with parents this way as well as I hope to have more celebrations of learning exposition type events in the future.
  • Finally collaborating as students it is important but also as teachers, reaching out to staff. Sharing resources and using school resources is so important. We can’t always be reinventing the wheel so having activities that are easily modifiable are essential.

As a final example, one activity I and my students enjoy which fosters oral language practice is using an image and some sentence starters to create a story. This can be easily modified as you can select image that are of interest to your students. Last week I did one about volcanos and mountains as this year I have a huge interest in them. This helped motivate my students.

Final Thoughts

Throughout this term, I have been able to engage in research and really refine my topic of interests. I think much of my area of interests for my research relies on my passion for French Language Learning and Professional Development. The purpose of my final project has become more clear.

I truly believe that my project can benefit teacher candidates as well as teacher to promote French Language initiatives and create a French community. Within my School District I know the connections are already strong. Victoria is small and the French community and teaching community is even smaller. Therefore, digital badging can help promote the participation in French events such as the Société Francophone, the French Conferences (notably I will be attending another one on Monday Nov 20th at Arbutus Global Middle School). I hear that some French teachers are doing other Pro-D opportunities and hope that in the future the badge promotion may motivate them to do more in French. As in my opinion there is never enough French opportunities where you can speak French with others and learn pedagogies for French specific Education.

Here is a TedTalk from Joyce Seitzinger that discusses the relevance of Open Badges.

Here is another video that further discusses Badging in Elementary.

Furthermore to discuss about the literature a bit more and to further discuss my group project’s findings. I really valued the idea of an ARIS system for encouraging French Language Learning. It seemed to motivate and engage learners at a Post Secondary Level and I have read through this process it is similar from K-12. Badging is become more and more predominant and is starting to be seen in multiple apps and games notably Duolingo as we saw throughout our research. Moving away from certificates allows us to create digital backpacks and share our learning.

There are many benefits to this and here are just a few key ideas I read about and that are well summarized in this blog post.  Although I do not want to design an Augmented Reality App, I do value the benefits and impacts it has on education and I hope similarly badging in terms of French (Language Learning) can have a positive impact for teachers as well. Although we all chose articles, it was the process and leading discussions that made our learning so interesting and connected.

We were able to learn about the subject of gamification and language learning while also keeping in mind our final projects and potentially figuring out final project links and purpose.

Some other acronyms that will be relevant to my research include.

  • ARIS: Augmented Reality Interactive Storytelling
  • CALL: Computer Assisted Language Learning
  • CMC: Computer Mediated Communication
  • TELL: Technology Enhanced Language Learning
  • MALL:: Mobile Assisted Language learning (and language learning in virtual worlds)
  • CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning

There are so many angles to develop my research. As such, I am excited to continue this journey and am grateful for this class and the ability to collaborate and learn from my peers. This term, we started our Masters process, we were able to learn a bit about everyone’s areas of interest and then engage with each other during some amazing group presentations. My next steps are to contact the University of Alberta to discuss their FrancoPass initiative more and look into some more research to further outline my project goals.

As I hope to create a system called “Mon Passeport Franco” to promote French Language Learning amongst teacher candidates and teachers. Here is the logo, I have created and I am hoping to use as I continue to develop my ideas.

Designed and created by Brittany Johnson

When thinking ahead at design: some key questions that I still have are as follows.

  • Is there an app making tool that is better and supports all phone models/ will be easily available on App stores?

or

  • Would creating a website and login system using open source potentially be more accessible?

Pro-D Oct 19-21 2023 French teaching Conference

I spent the weekend in Whistler at a French teaching conference, which was hosted by APPIPC, which is a specialized association for French teachers in British Columbia (BC). Their goal is to promote and expand French teaching in BC. This work directly aligns with my desired final Masters project as I want to merge and discuss French teaching and technology in a post-secondary French Education context.

I went to this conference with the new French PDPP program cohort at UVic. Learning alongside the group and talking about my future project has made me excited about my Masters. French in the context of BC is a minority language and it is challenging to be fully immersed in the language. In Whistler village, it was wonderful to hear the French language fill the village. We all took the opportunity to be a community and speak French the whole weekend. We can say it was a FRANCOFUN experience where everyone was able to set goals and take learning risks.

Something I value in education is that we are all on our unique learning journeys. Therefore, as we set goals they may be different. This also aligns with the BC curriculum where we help students set goals and report on them throughout the year. However, in a university context, these goals are often not recognized. They can be self-monitored and accomplished, but no official recognition is awarded. Accordingly, I have been working on this idea of motivation and recognition through a digital badging project that I am hoping to grow and launch for my Masters. My overall goal is to possibly create an application where students can be awarded badges for risk taking/ goal setting as well as many other initiatives.

To provide you a sneak peak of what I have been working on. Here is a glimpse of two digital badges related to risk taking and conferences. There are others in development.

Designed and Created by Brittany Johnson
Designed and Created by Brittany Johnson

For now, I have started to use BADGR to assign badges to participants and eventually this may lead to some digital pathways where you receive an overall badge once you complete a certain amount of initiatives.

Throughout the conference, there was an emphasis on student motivation and with this project and what I envision I hope to all help create that amongst current and future French teachers. I learned some valuable resources and tools within my conference sessions and among our presenter Samian (who is French and Algonquian artist who shared some inspirational dialogue about identity). This idea of community and collaboration is thus reinforced. Ultimately, it is my hope that these badges will motivate more French speakers to participate in various initiatives and feel recognized for their participation and personal achievements all while building a community.

What does the literature say about the issue, topic, or theme identified?

In terms of research, I am really interested in the benefits that technology can have in a French Language learning context.

When working on our group project, I was able to dive into more about what the literature says. It also specifically looked at the benefits of digital badging (which is an area of great interest to me).

A few key aspects that made me choose this article included the context of the research. Firstly, while looking at research articles it is tricky enough to find French Language specific articles. This article, however, conducted its research in Victoria at the University of Victoria. It lacked an elementary context, but the contents of it seemed to be easily translated to the context and Perry (2015), even stated “In regards to education, gamification has seen successful implementation in a range of subject matters, and age groups, from K-12 learners to university level courses.” (p.2310).

I believe that with time and trials that this app Explorez could be effective in elementary grades. Although during the case study only 11 students participated and they were from a first year university French class. The participants described it as “fun”, “useful” “motivating” and “relevant”. Therefore reinforcing that gamification is useful to support French language learning. Some even, shared that the game made it more exciting to learn and helped learning become social and beyond just the walls of the classroom. Something I really liked about this app is that is allows users to be immersed in an environment that then becomes French. In a place where French is not the dominant language, this feature is very beneficial to making learning authentic.

As I dove into understanding this app, I found myself researching it more and trying to download it to try it out. I have emailed the author in hopes to receive an answer to some of my questions. One of my major questions at this time is, the app ARIS (Augmented Reality Interactive Storytelling) that was used to create the game Explorez is no longer available in Canada and therefore wondering what other creation tools exist and if I can access Perry’s work somewhere…. It is quite sad that this game is no longer available and that the work of Perry is no longer accessible, as I see many benefits to this tool .

Here is a video that looks at the app Explorez, more in depth :

Based on Bernadette Perry’s research project.

This makes me start to think about opportunities for my final project. I may be interested in creating a game or an app. I have never done anything like that but I am open to the idea especially when there seems to be a lack thereof. I think many teachers would use it as long as I share training with them to help support the process.

All in all based on various articles I have viewed, it seems that there is an emphasis on motivation in terms of the game based learning and digital badging. A large portion of the articles, tend to focus on vocabulary acquisition, however the Explorez app seemed to have more meaningful learning environments through social interactions with the completion of quests, which I valued. On another note, some articles focused more on the idea of inclusive practices and technology which helped support personalized learning. Therefore, between these articles it looks like there is potential to explore this topic more in depth and I am looking forward to this process.

References

Perry, B. (2015). Gamifying French Language Learning: A Case Study Examining a Quest-based, Augmented Reality Mobile Learning-tool. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2308–2315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.892

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